We can collect metrics on almost anything. We have to define: what are the goals? What is the desire results?
We want quantitative (measurable) and not qualitative goals, so that they are easily measurable. Quantitative does not mean the metrics can’t be subjective, however, and we want to make sure to have objective metrics.
We also want consistent numbers: in order to compare month to month, year to year etc.
We also want impartiality: bias can come from the person taking the metrics and interpreting the metrics, based on their own relation to the numbers (is the number tied to their results etc). We want metrics that are the same no matter who measures them.
Finally, the metrics must be linked to business goals: companies don’t care about hard drive failure, but they care if that failure leads to sales loss.
Examples of metrics:
- Coding practices
Defects per line of code
- Time to remediate
- Criticality level
- Key goal indicators: what we would like to do, the ideal state
- Key performance indicators: what we must do, the bare minimum
- Key risk indicators: used with key performance indicators to alert us if there is something that maybe will go wrong
An example of key risk indicator is: if I have a key performance indicator that says I must wrap up support phone call in less than 60min, the key risk indicator would send an alert at 50min to indicate we are near risk of not performing at agreed time.
Review of Performance
- Operating criteria
- Training of administrators and users
- Monitoring and log review
- Change control
Measure what is important and what can be change (what we have an influence on).
Focus on consistent measurement criteria.
Peer review the work, do vulnerability assessments (regularly), do penetration tests.
Reporting to Management
Metrics are any good if they are not reported to management so that someone can make a decision and act upon them. The following can (and should) be reported to management:
- SIEM (dashboards)
- Audits (often called the “eyes and ears of management”)
- CMMI models (Capability Maturity Model Integration): are we making progress in the way we do various processes such as change control/SDLC? Are we maturing and not making the same mistakes over and over, year after year?
Feedback cycles (from management)
- Steering committees (advisory board that has governance over a company, determines the order in which business will be taken up).
Incident management is “how do I deal with those unexpected incidents that could cause a disruption to business processes?”
We should have a plan:
- Incident response plan
- Mitigation, containment, restoration
Communication with management
- Impact on business
Key points review: Perception is the enemy of reality: many people think a system is not working to desired levels of performance, but they are often wrong. Have defined security metrics to define what is a pass or a fail.