Modules is a way to achieve #Polymorphism is Ruby. A module is a collection of behaviors that can be included in another class via mixins.

Modules are usefull because Ruby is a single inheritance language: a class can only inherits from one superclass. This limitation makes it difficult to design accurately a problem. Modules let the programmer mix in behaviors to achieve what would be otherwise impossible with a single inheritance. A class can sub-class from only one parent (superclass) but it can mix in as many modules as it likes.

Module cannot be instantiated (no object can be created from a module). They are only used for mixins and namespacing.


Mixins comes from “mixed in”: a module is mixed in (mixin) to a class using the include method invocation.

As Ruby’s class can only inherits from one superclass, one can use module and mixins to group common behaviors to create a more flexible design.

module Speakable
  def speak(sound)
    puts sound

class Flamingo
  include Speakable

johnny =
johnny.speak('Gwa gwa!') # => Gwa gwa!

By convention, Rubyist use the “-able” suffix on a verb to describes the behavior that the module is modeling. This is however not enforced.

See Method Lookup Path# for how Ruby lookup methods of module mixed in to a class.


Namespacing means grouping similar classes under a common module. Using namespacing has two advantages:

  1. Better organize and recognize related classes in our code
  2. Reduce the likelihood of our custom classes to collide with classes of the same name in the codebase (specially true when using a lot of gems)
module Mammal
  class Dog

  class Cat

olive =
felix =

Classes in a module are called using two colons: ::.

Container (for methods)

Using modules as a container for methods (called module methods) let us define methods that quite don’t match any class and/or module in our codebase.

module Speakable
  # Other methods

  def self.out_of_place_method(num)

result = Speakable.out_of_place_method(4) # Preferred way to call the method
result = Speakable::out_of_place_method(4)